According to Ausubel (1960), learning is based upon the kinds of superordinate, representational, and combinatorial processes that occur during the reception of information.
An advance organizer is
The primary idea of Advance Organizer theory is that learning of new knowledge is dependent on what is already known. Two principles behind advance organizers are related to the explanation of how people acquire knowledge.
Ausubel further distinguished between two kinds of advance organizer:
Comparative organizers are used with information with which the student already is somewhat acquainted. By acting as reminders, the organizer activates existing schemas, and builds on the prior knowledge of the students.
A comparative organizer is used both to integrate as well as discriminate (Ausubel, 1968, p. 149). It:
In contrast, expository organizers are often used when the new learning material is unfamiliar to the learner, and the learner require some scaffolding to link the new concepts to what they already know.
Thus, familiarity with the new material is key to determining which type of organizer needs to be used.
The most significant contribution of David Ausubel was the development and research on advance organizers since 1960. His research in the field of educational psychology and cognitive science was influenced by Piaget’s conceptual schemes (schemata).
From this perspective, an advance organizer is a cognitive instructional strategy that is used to promote the learning and retention of new information. Specifically, new material is related to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure on a substantive, non-verbatim basis.
Ausubel believed that learning is based upon the kinds of superordinate, representational, and combinatorial processes that occur during the reception of information. A primary process in learning is to start with a "Big Picture" of the upcoming content, and link new ideas, concepts, vocabulary, to existing mental maps of the content area.
According to Ausubel, it is important for teachers to:
According to Joyce et al. (2000), the advance organizer model has three phases of activity:
Advance organizers provide the necessary scaffolding for students to either learn new and unfamiliar material or to integrate new ideas into relatively familiar ideas.
The following strategies can be used to implement Advance Organizers: