Peter is a Mathematics teacher and is very serious in the acquisition by his students. He adopts a five step approach in daily practice, which are listed below:
Modeling: He works through a Mathematics problem aloud in front of the class and ensure all have well observed and understood about that.
Coaching: Students are then assigned simple questions while Peter walks along and coaches (if deemed necessary).
Articulation: Peter asks the students to say what he/she thinks might be the next step with reasons.
Reflection: After completion of the exercise, Peter works through the questions and shows the steps and solution to his class.
Exploration: At the end of the lesson, Peter further assigns similar problems that make use of daily life data/experience for students to work on.
What kind of teaching model do you think Peter is using? Are you employing similar strategies in your daily practices?
Susan is an experienced violin teacher and she is strict regarding students’ musical performance of playing violin. She is teaching a class of 20 students with different learning abilities. Some of her students did not perform a song smoothly by violin and always have difficulty in following the beat/tempo. So the teacher adopts different strategies to help her students to acquire expertise through modeling, coaching, scaffolding, reflection and exploration. Which pictures embed these teaching strategies that she employed?
Let’s find out more about the spirit of Cognitive Apprenticeship in subsequent paragraph.
Students do not usually have access to the cognitive and metacognitive processes of instructors, as a basis for learning through observation. Cognitive apprenticeship is a model of instruction that works to make those processes visible where students can observe, enact, and practice them with help from the teacher and from other students.
Cognitive Apprenticeship composed of four major components that constitute any learning environment:
Principles for Designing Cognitive Apprenticeship Enviroments
|Content||Types of knowledge required for expertise|
|Domain knowledge||subject matter specific concepts, facts, and procedures|
|Heuristic strategies||generally applicable techniques for acccomplishing tasks|
|Control strategies||general approaches for directing one's solution process|
|Learning strategies||knowledge about how to learn new concepts, facts, and procedures|
|Method||Ways to promote the development of expertise|
|Modeling||teacher performs a task so students can observe|
|Coaching||teacher observes and facilitates while students perform a task|
|Scaffolding||teacher provides supports to help the student perform a task|
|Articulation||teacher encourages students to verbalize their knowledge and thinking|
|Reflection||teacher enables students to compare their performance with others|
|Exploration||teacher invites students to pose and solve their own problems|
|Sequencing||Keys to ordering learning activities|
|Increasing complexity||meaningful tasks gradually increasing in difficulty|
|Increasing diversity||practice in a variety of situations to emphasize broad application|
|Global to local skills||focus on conceptualizing the whole task before executing the parts|
|Sociology||Social characteristics of learning environments|
|Situated learning||students learn in the context of working on realistic tasks|
|Community of practice||communication about different ways to accomplish meaningful tasks|
|Intrinsic motivation||students set personal goals to seek skills and solutions|
|Cooperation||students work together to accomplish their goals|
As a cognitive scientist and foundational member of the field of the learning sciences, Collins has influenced several strands of educational research and development.
Collins, Brown, and Newman (1989)developed six teaching methods:
Experts (usually teachers or mentors) demonstrate a task explicitly so the new students or novices can observe. The models should put their thoughts and reasons into words while explaining and demonstrating certain actions, because students cannot otherwise monitor the thinking process (Shunk, 2000).
Specifically, the modeling of cognitive processes requires
During Coaching, the expert observes and gives feedback and hints to the novice when he or she performs a task. Coaching can be regarded as the process of overseeing the student's learning, which begins with helping learners choose their tasks (not always an option), and may end with providing feedback to learners on their completed products.
Many coaching strategies may be employed, including
Scaffolding can be considered only one form of coaching, to help the student perform a task. Collins, Brown, and Newman (1989) describe scaffolding as a kind of cooperative problem-solving effort by teachers and students in which the express intention is for the students to assume as much of the task on his own as possible, as soon as possible.
Scaffolding is based on Vygotsky's (1978) concept of the zone of proximal development (hyperlink to ZPD). Zhao and Orey (1999) identify six elements of ideal scaffolding:
Reflection involves enabling students to
Reflection is enhanced by use of various techniques. One of the most effective ways to improve performance is for learners to evaluate how they did with respect to a set of criteria that determine good performance. Additionally, teacher can pose experientially-based questions, or ask students to construct their own questions, throughout the learning experience --questions that consider content (e.g. who or what?) while emphasizing process (e.g. how and why?)
Exploration involves giving students room to problem solve on their own. In other words, exploration is the ultimate fading of support, which allows the student to frame interesting problems within the domain for themselves and then take the initiative to solve these problems.
In addition, computer-based learning environments could provide students with apprenticeship-like experiences, for there is likely to be continued development of new ways to embody these principles in the design the learning environments. For instance, the wide availability of computers and other recording technologies makes performances and feedback easier to produce and to reflect upon.