Self-esteem is a personal judgment of worthiness that is expressed in the attitudes an individual holds towards himself.
Self-esteem is one’s perceived sense of self-worth, or whether one accepts and respects oneself.
High self-esteem refers to a positive view of ourselves. This tends to lead to
Low self-esteem refers to a negative view of ourselves. This tends to lead to
High self-esteem might lead one to attempt difficult tasks, and subsequent success enhances self-confidence. Self-esteem is the evaluative component of self-concept. The belief that one is capable of performing a task can raise self-esteem.
In short, self-esteem is a positive or negative attitude towards the self. According to March and Craven (2006), overall self-esteem is synonymous with self-concept.
From this perspective, individuals make judgment about their abilities in different context. For instance, how successful they are in academic contexts, how competent they feel in social situations and so on. All together, these various judgments combine to create an overall judgment about self- global self-esteem.
According to one definition (Braden, 1969), there are three key components of self-esteem:
Mruk (1999) identified a wide range of factors that influence self-esteem for example, in relation to parental factors, Gender, cultural orientation, and social factors and values.
Michael Argyle argues that there are 4 major factors that influence self-esteem:
Roles aren’t just “out there.” They also become part of our personality i.e. we identity with the positions we occupy, the roles we play and the groups we belong to.
The need for self-esteem plays an important role in psychologist Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs, depicting self-esteem as one of the basic human motivations. Maslow suggested that people need both esteem from other people as well as inner self-respect. Both of these needs must be fulfilled in order for an individual to grow as a person and achieve self-actualization.
We saw from the findings concerning parental and social factors affecting self-esteem that how we are treated by others may affect its development
Humanistic psychology states that such feedback must be “authentic,” which is to say based in reality and not phony praise.
Cognitive research indicates that there might be value in providing positive feedback in a way that is slow but steady rather than fast or sudden.
This technique involves three basic steps:
The general idea is to help people increase their sense of self-efficacy by learning to become more successful which, in turn, increases self-esteem.
One way to help increase self-esteem, then, is to teach people how to solve problems more effectively and efficiently
(Bednar et al., 1989)
Self-esteem is increased through hard work and practice. It takes a long time to develop: usually involve deeply ingrained habits of perception, experience, and behavior, all of which are well cemented by the time we reach adulthood.
(Miller & Moran, 2012)