A case: Teacher C (Clark)
Different from teacher B(Ben) who cares much of students’ feelings and needs, Clark pays lots of attention to students’ thinking and knowledge acquisition. In order to make students remember and understand what need to be learned, he prepares learning material that is organized from simple to complex, and uses multimedia to present to students in a neat and coherent way. He also gives real-life examples to explain the theories, so that students can have a clear understanding.
In contrast with behaviorism, cognitive conceptions of learning:
Learning is therefore represented mentally and analogous to computer processing. “Cognitive psychology has influenced learning theory and research in several significant ways, including (Shuell, 1986, p. 415):
John Sweller is best known for formulating the influential theory of cognitive load that starts from the idea that working memory is limited with respect to the amount of information it can hold, and the number of operations it can perform on that information.
He studies cognitive processes and instructional design with specific emphasis on working memory limitations and their consequences for instructional procedures. Hence, the key aspect of the theory is the relation between long-term memory and working memory, and how do we develop quality instruction to help optimize the working memory.
Cognitive load theory suggests that learning happens best under conditions that are aligned with human cognitive architecture. Human cognitive architecture met this requirement by its combination of working and long-term memory.
Based on a cognitive architecture that consists of a limited working memory with partly independent processing units for visual and auditory information, which interacts with an unlimited long-term memory, cognitive load theory is concerned with techniques for reducing working memory load in order to facilitate the changes in long term memory associated with schema acquisition.
Sweller differentiates between intrinsic, germane, and extraneous cognitive load.
How the material is taught influences the extrinsic cognitive load. Teachers who give clear presentations help to minimize extrinsic cognitive load, whereas those who explain these concepts poorly increase extrinsic load (Schunk, 2012)
According to Schunk (2012), information processing is not the name of a single theory. Rather, it is a generic name applied to theoretical perspectives dealing with the sequence and execution of cognitive events. The pages below describe some specific instructional approaches and strategies such as: